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亞博網頁登陸 | 2010-08-25

摘要:從用戶的角度,分析了目前我國閥門標準化方面存在的問題,并提出了幾點建議,供有關標準化管理部門參考。

關鍵詞:閥門;標準;問題;建議;

dangqian,woguobiaozhunhuaguanlicunzaizhutiaokuaifenge、gexingqishidexianxiang。gexingyebumendebiaozhunhuadouyougezidefenkouguanlibumen。youyubumendefengbiheliyibaohu,nanyishixianbiaozhunhuagongzuodetongyixiediao。youqishiduikuaxingyedefamendengtongyongchanpindebiaozhunhuagongzuogengshiruci。

woguofamenbiaozhunhuagongzuozigaigekaifangyilaiyoulehendadefazhan,wulunshichanpinbiaozhundebuchongwanshanfangmianhuanshizaicaiyongguojibiaozhun(iso/tc153)heguowaixianjinbiaozhunfangmiandouqudeleyidingdechengji。famenbiaozhunzaishuliangshangyoudaliangdezengjia,zaishuipingshangyouyidingdetigao。danshizaifamenbiaozhunhuafangmianyecunzaibushaowenti。

1 目前閥門標準方面存在的問題

1.1 閥門檢查驗收標準不統一

famenzuoweiguanlushangde“yanhou”chanpin,qijianchaheyanshouyinggaiyouyigetongyide、gaoshuipingdebiaozhun,zheshiguangdafamenyonghuzuiguanxindebiaozhun。

shijishang,muqianyouguanfamenyanshoujianyandetiaokuanzaichanpinbiaozhunzhongyaoqiubuquan,erzuoweidulidefamenjianchayanshoubiaozhunyoubujintongyi,fenbieyou gb4981-85《gongyeyongfamendeyalishiyan》、gb/t13927-92《tongyongfamenyalishiyan》、zbj16006-90《famendeshiyanyujianyan》。erzhesangejianchayanshoubiaozhundeneirongyoubujinxiangtong,duifamendejianyanxiangmu、jianyanfangfa、zhiliangzhibiaodebiaoshuyebuwanquanyizhi。daozhifamenyonghugaobuqingchudaodigaiyongnagebiaozhunzuoweiduigoumaidefamenjinxingjianchayanshoudeyiju。youshihuanzaochengyonghuneibuzhinengbumenzaifamenyanshouruku、lingyongchanpinshichanshengbubiyaodemaodun。

erfamenshengchanchangjiayeshigexingqishi、zhongshuofenyun,youdechangjiashuo gb4981 biaozhunjijingzuofei,yinggaicaiyong gb/t13927;youdechangjiashuo gb/t13927 shuipingbugao,zhishituijianxingbiaozhun,ertamenzijicaiyongdeshi zbj16006;erlingwaiyixiechangjiayourenwei zbj16006 shifamenxingyeneibudezhuanyexingbiaozhun,yinggaicaiyongguobiao gb4981,nongdeyonghuwusuoshicong。

bizherenweigongyefamenjianchayanshoubiaozhunyinggaishiyigetongyide、wanzhengde、zhiyouweiyijieshidebiaozhun,qiwenbenyinggaiyiguojiabiaozhun gb weihao,yimanzugegongyebumenpeitaoxuanyongdexuyao,buyinggaixiangxianzaizheyangjigebiaozhunbingcun,geyougedebiaozhunhao,geyoubujinxiangtongdeneirongyaoqiu,bimianshengchanchangjiagequsuoxu,duizijidechanpinzenyangyoulizenyangjieshidexianxiangchuxian。

1.2 有關標準修改方面的問題

zhongsuozhouzhi,biaozhunneirongdexiugai、wanshan、tigaoshizhengchangde。bizherenweixiudingdebiaozhunyinggaijixuyanyongyuanbiaozhunhao,zhixuzaibiaozhundenianhaoshangjiayigaibian。liru gb4981-85 xiudinghougaiwei gb4981-90、gb4981-95,ermeiyoubiyaofeiqu gb4981 lingyong gb/t13927 xinhao,zheyangbudanshiyuanlaidebiaozhunhaochenglekonghao,tongshiyouzengjialeyigexinhao。

可能會有人解釋這樣做是為了吸收和采用國外先進標準。但筆者認為:制修訂標準時積極采用國際標準和國外先進標準是完全正確和應該的,問題是要經過分析對比,學其所長,取其精華,形成自己的體系,不能見到一個搬一個,使自己的標準五花八門,亂了套路,成為國外標準的混合體。國外工業發達國家的標準經常修訂,但總也不會亂了體系。例如美國石油協會的 API598《閥門試驗與檢驗》標準,經過 20 年的多次修改,發展為 API598-96 第七版,但標準號始終還是 API598,只是在年號上和版本上作相應改變。而不象我們修改后另起新號,使人們無法分辨新舊標準的發展軌跡。德國的閥門供貨標準 DIN3230,是采用在標準號下又分列分號的辦法。如 DIN3230-Pt1 供貨技術條件,Pt2 供貨一般要求,Pt3 試驗總匯,Pt4 供水閥試驗,Pt5 煤氣閥檢驗等,這種編號給人以條理清晰的感覺,值得我們借鑒。

1.3 閥門標準與法蘭標準不配套

yonghuzaixuangoufamenshichuleguanxinfamenbenshendezhiliangwentiwai,huanyaoguanxinfamenyuguandaolianjieanzhuangdechicunpipeiwenti。danmuqianyouguanfamenfalanbiaozhunwuhuabamen,jixiebudefalanbiaozhunyou jb78、jb79、jb/t791、jb/t80、jb/t81 deng;qitabumendefalanbiaozhunyou hgj44、sh3406、hg20592 deng;huanyouguojiagang、tiefalanbiaozhun gb4216、gb9113 deng。erzhexiebiaozhunyouguanchicunbujinxiangtong。tongyizhonggangcaidetongyiyaliguigedefalan,yaomeshiwaiyuandaxiaocha 5mm、,yaomeshifalanhoubocha 1~2mm,zuijiandanzuichangyongdetumianfalan(rf)detumiantaijiezhijingchicunhuanhubutongyi,zongyaochaneime 2~3mm,zhezhongzhuangkuanggeiyonghudailaijidademafan。wangwangxuangoudefamenfadaoshigongxianchanghoufaxianyoudeshifalanwaiyuandajihaomi,youdexiaojihaomi;youdeluozhukongda 1~2 gehaomi,youdeluokongheluoshuanyiyangda,hennanchuanjinqu,lianxuyaohuageshimianbandefalantutaimifengdianwaiyuanyeyoudayouxiao,xiangcha 1~2mm。tongyigeguigedefamenyouyushengchanchangjiabutong,caiyongdefalanbiaozhunbuxiangtong,zaochengfalanweixiaodechicunbianhuashizaishimeiyoubiyao,jibuheliyouwuxianjinxing。

1.4 閥門結構長度不統一

閥門除了連接法蘭本身尺寸標準較亂以外,兩端法蘭面之間的尺寸——結構長度也分長、中、短系列。對同一個壓力級同一個規格口徑的閥門,過去的閥門結構長度尺寸是唯一的,要更換一臺閥門只要選好型號、壓力、口徑,買來一定能安裝到管道法蘭間。現在采用新的標準不行了,首先閥門沒有一個統一的結構長度標準可查,有一個標準是 GB12221《法蘭連接金屬閥門結構長度》,列出的是法蘭閥門的結構長度,可是又包括了對夾式蝶閥止回閥的結構長度。又有一個標準是 GB/T15188《閥門的結構長度》,從標準名字看,這個標準應該是包括所有閥門,可是它只包括了對焊連接、對夾連接和內外螺紋連接的小口徑閥門,而不包括法蘭連接閥門,而且對夾連接的蝶閥和止回閥與 GB12221 中的壓力口徑范圍又不相同,讓人無所適從。另外承插焊連接,卡套、卡箍連接的閥門其結構長度又無從查找或者根本沒有標準。即使好不容易從 ZBJ16005《鍛鋼閥門》中找到了幾個口徑的內螺紋連接、承插焊連接的閥門的結構長度尺寸,過了幾年又被 JB/T7746 所代替,其內容中的內螺紋、承插焊結構長度尺寸表又變了,還有一些閥門的結構長度分別“埋藏”在不同的專門產品標準中。例如在 GB12233 中能找到內螺紋閥門結構長度,在 GB12240 中也有內螺紋連接閥門的結構長度,在 GB12237 中又能找到對焊連接閥門的結構長度尺寸表,其中有些和 GB/T5188 又不一致。

huanyou,famendejiegouchangduduiyutongyigeyalikoujingdefamenyoufenchulechang、zhong、duanxilie,chuxianleyougebiedechangxiliechicunbizhongxiliehuoduanxiliechicunhuanduandexianxiang,yinqidehouguoshishejiyuanxuanxingshibuzhidaogaixuannayigexilie,yinweifamenshengchanchangbukenengduitongyizhonglei、tongyiyaliji、tongyikoujingdemeigeguigedefatizhunbeichang、zhong、duansantaozhu、duanmoju,shengchanchangyebuzhidaoshejiyuankenenghuixuannayizhonghuoyonghuxuyaonayizhong,yonghuzaigenghuanfamenshiyebuzhidaoxuyaogenghuandefamenjiegouchangdushuyuchanghuoduannayigexilie,buganmaorandinghuo。ruguomaihuilaiyigefamen,jishixinghao、yali、koujing、falanchicundouzhengque,jiegouchangdudechang、zhong、duanduibushang,xianchangrengranzhuangbushang。zheyangdefamenbiaozhunshijishanghemeiyoubiaozhunyigeyang。

zhezhongbutongyiwenti,zaichanpinbiaozhunzhongyecunzai,zaicibuzaizhuishu。

2 幾點建議

(1)jianyiguojiabiaozhunhuaguanlibumenjiaqianghongguanguanli,jinliangbimianhezhizhiyouxiebumen、xingyegexingqishi,youqishizaibiaozhunhuadetizhihetixishangjiaqiangkuangjiaguanli。

(2)jianyixiugaibiaozhunyinggaiyanyongyuanbiaozhunhao,bingzainianhaoshangjiayiqubie。yibianjicengheyonghulejiebiaozhundefazhan、qudaiqingkuang。tongshibiaozhunhaodeqingyibaofeiyeshibiaozhunxuliezhongkonghaozengduo,jiachangbiaozhunliushuihao。

(3)jiaqiangxinbiaozhundexuanchuangongzuo,yibianyonghujishilejiebiaozhundequdaiqingkuang,baozhengxinbiaozhundejishiguanchezhixing。

(4)jiaqiangbiaozhunhuaguanlihexiediaogongzuo,bimiangebumen、gexingyebiaozhundezhongfu、maodunhebutongyixianxiang,shiwoguobiaozhunhuatixigengjiawanshan,biaozhunhuashuipingjinyibutigao。


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