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zhaiyao:benwenconganquanfadejibenyuanli、guzhanghexiaochu、weihujianchazuolejieshao,tongshiqiangdiaoanquanfazaichengyaleitezhongshebeiyunxingzhongdezhongyaoxing。

關鍵詞:承壓類特種設備安全附件;安全閥;故障和消除;維護和檢查

cong 2008 nianquanguotezhongshebeianquanzhuangkuangxinxidezhi:2008 niangongfashengtezhongshebeishigu 307 qi,siwang 317 ren,shoushang 461 ren,zhijiejingjisunshi 9789.48 wanyuan,erzhijieyinanquanfujianshixiaohuoanquanzhuangzhisunhuaiyinfadeshigu 17 qi,zhan 2008 niantezhongshebeishiguzongqishude 5.5%,qizhongzhuyaoshiguolu、yalirongqi、yaliguandao、diantiheqizhongjixieanquanzhuangzhishixiaohuozhesunhuaidewenti。

2009 nian 6 yue 25 ri,congguizhoushengzhiliangjishujiandujudeguizhoushengtezhongshebeianquanzhuangkuangxinwenfabudezhi:2009 nianshangbannian,shengneigongfashengtezhongshebeishigu 3 qi,qingshang 4 ren,zhijiejingjisunshi 3.1 wanyuan。qizhongguolubaozhashigu 2 qi,guanguangcheshigu 1 qi,er 2 qiguolushigujunweianquanfashixiao、guoluchaoyayunxing、gaoyazaochengguolubaozha。

congyishangshigudefashengyuanyinyuwentilaikan,yixietezhongshebeishiyongdanweizhongshengchanqinganquandeqingkuangyirancunzai,tebieshizhong、xiaoqiyehekunnanqiyedeanquanzerenluoshibijiaokunnan。qiyezixingbaojianshebeibeishicha,shebeijinxingrichangweihu、baoyangbugou,congerdaozhishiguyinhuanhedaozhishigufasheng。tezhongshebeishiyongdanwei,youqishizhong、xiaoxingminyinghuogetiqiyeyaorenzhenxuexi、guanchezhixing《tezhongshebeianquanjianchatiaoli》,jianlitezhongshebeianquanshengchanguanlitixi,duizaiyongdetezhongshebeiyingjinxingjingchangxingderichangweihuhejiancha,bingjishijiangdaoqijianyandezaiyongtezhongshebeiheanquanfujianjishijinxingjianyan,zuodaojishizhenggai,xiaochuyinhuan,zhenzhengluoshiqiyezhutizeren,quebaozaiyongtezhongshebeideanquanyunxing。

guizhoushengguojianzhongxinchengdanzhuchengyaleitezhongshebeiguolu、yalirongqi、yaliguandaodengdejianyanyijianquanfujian(anquanfa、yalibiao)dexiaoyanyuweixiurenwu,tongshiyouyiwuxiangtezhongshebeishiyongdanweijinxingtezhongshebeixiangguanfalvfaguidexuanguanhejishufuwu,jixushenrukaizhan“zhiliangheanquannian”hetezhongshebei“sanxiangxingdong”gongzuo,qieshibaozhangshebeiyunxinganquan,yinci,benwenzhuyaoduianquanfadexiangguanzhishi、anquanfagongzuozhongchangjianguzhangjipaichu、weihuhejianchagongzuofangfajinxingjieshao,yiqitongtezhongshebeishiyongdanweihejianyandanweixianghujiaoliuhexuexi,yinqitezhongshebeishiyongdanweidegaoduzhongshi。

一、安全閥是承壓類特種設備的重要安全附件

安全閥是一種自動閥門,它不借助任何外力而利用介質本身的力來排出一額定數量的流體,以防止壓力超過額定的安全值。當壓力恢復正常后,閥門再行關閉并阻止介質繼續流出。安全閥是鍋爐、壓力容器和壓力管道等承壓類特種設備的重要安全附件,是為防止設備在異常狀況下壓力過高引起爆炸而設置的安全裝置,對設備的安全性和經濟性等方面都起著重大作用。因此,中華人民共和國國務院令第 549 號《特種設備安全監察條例》、《壓力容器安全技術監察規程》、《安全閥安全技術監察規程》及相關安全技術規范規定,嚴格要求對在用的特種設備的安全閥實行定期校驗,定期檢測的周期一般每年至少一次,從而更好地保證安全閥定期校驗的有效性和及時性。

2009 nian 5 yue 8 ri,guojiazhijianzongjuyoubanbule《anquanfaanquanjishujianchaguicheng》di 1 haoxiugaidan,duianquanfadesheji、zhizao、jianyan、anzhuang、shiyong、xiaoyanheweixiuguochengdexianjinxing、shiyongxingjixianyouguichengjiguanlibanfadeyizhixingyouguiding,bingfuhehezunzhaole《tezhongshebeianquanjianchatiaoli》dedeyaoqiu,gengjiaquebaoleanquanfazaiguolu、yalirongqiheyaliguandaodengchengyaleishebeishangdeanquanshiyong。

二、安全閥銘牌上應載明的內容

zaianquanfamingpaishanghuozheanquanfawaibiaomianzhishaoyouyixianeirongdemingxianbiaozhi:anquanfazhizaoxukezhengbianhaojibiaozhi,zhizaodanweimingcheng,anquanfajiegouleixing,zhizaoriqijiqichanpinbianhao,gongchengyali(yaliji),gongchengtongjing,liudaozhijinghuozheliudaomianji,zhengdingyali,faticailiao,edingpailiangxishuhuozheduimouyiliutibaozhengdeedingpailiang。

mingpaiyingdangyongnaifushicailiaozhizao,erqiebixulaogugudingzaifatihuozhefagaiwaibiaomian。

三、安全閥常見的故障及消除方法

anquanfaguzhangzhuyaoshiyouyusheji、zhizao、xuanzehuoshiyongbudangzaochengde。zhexieguzhangrubujishixiaochu,jiuhuiyingxianganquanfadegongxiaoheshouming,shenzhibunengqidaoanquanbaohuzuoyong。congshishiyongzhongdeanquanfadeyunxingweihu、chaixiejianyan、jianyangongzuoderenyuanyingdangqude《tezhongshebeizuoyerenyuanzheng》。changjiandeguzhangjixiaochufangfaruxia:

(一)泄漏。在設備正常工作壓力下,閥瓣與閥座密封面之間發生超過允許程度的滲漏,其原因是閥瓣與閥座密封向之間有臟物,可使用提升扳手將閥開啟幾次,把臟物沖去。密封面損傷,應根據損傷程度采用研磨或車削后研磨的方法加以修復。閥桿彎曲、傾斜或杠桿與支點偏斜,使閥芯與閥瓣錯位,應重新裝配或更換。彈簧彈性降低或失去彈性,應采取更換彈簧、重新調整開啟壓力等措施。

(二)到規定壓力時不開啟。造成這種情況的原因是:

  1. 定壓不準。應重新調整彈簧的壓縮量或重錘的位置。
  2. 閥瓣與閥座粘住。應定期對安全閥作手動排放。
  3. 杠桿式安全閥的杠桿被卡住或重錘被移動。應重新調整重錘位置并使杠桿運動自動。

(三)不到規定壓力開啟。主要原因是定壓不準,彈簧老化,彈力下降,應適應旋緊調整閥桿或更換彈簧。

(四)排放后壓力繼續上升。這主要是因為選用的安全閥排量小于設備的安全泄放量,應重新選用合適的安全閥。閥桿中線不正或彈簧生銹,使閥瓣不能開到應有的高度,應重新裝配閥桿或更換彈簧。排氣管截面不夠,應采取符合安全排放面積的排氣管。

(五)閥瓣頻跳或振動。主要是由于彈簧剛度太大,應改用剛度適當的彈簧。調節圈調整不當,使用座壓力過高,應重新調整調節圈位置。排放管道阻力過大,造成過大的排放背壓。

(六)排放后閥瓣不回座。這主要是彈簧彎曲,閥桿、閥瓣安裝位置不正或被卡住造成的,應重新裝配。

四、做好安全閥的維護和檢查工作

yaoshianquanfadongzuolingmin、kekaohemifengxingnenglianghao,bixuzaiguolu、yalirongqi、yaliguandaodeyunxingguochengzhongjiaqiangweihuhejiancha。

(yi)yaojingchangbaochianquanfadeqingjie,fangzhifatidanhuangdengbeiyougouzangwutianmanhuobeifushi,fangzhianquanfapaifangguanbeiyouwuhuoqitayiwudusai。jingchangjianchaqianfengshifouwanhao,fangzhigangganshianquanfadezhongchuisongdonghuobeiyidong,fangzhisuiyiningdong。

(er)faxiananquanfayouxieloujixiangshi,yingshijigenghuanhuojianxiu。jinzhiyongjiadazaihe(ruguofenningjindanhuangshianquanfadediaojieluosihuozaigangganshianquanfadegangganshangjiaguazhongwudeng)defangfalaixiaochuxielou。weifangzhifabanhefazuobeiqitizhongdeyougoudengzangwuzhanzhu,zhishianquanrunbunengzhengchangkaiqi,duiyongyukongqi、zhengqihuodaiyouzhanzhixingzangwudanpaifangbuhuizaochengweihaideqitaqitideanquanfa,yingdingqizuoshoutipaifangshiyan。

(san)weibaochianquanfalingminkekao,meinianzhishaozuoyicidingqixiaoyan。dingqixiaoyandeneirongyibanbaokuodongtaijianchahejietijiancha。dongtaijianchadezhuyaoneirongshijianchaanquanfadekaiqiyali、huizuoyali、mifengchengduyijizaiedingpaifangyalixiadekaiqigaodudeng,qiyaoqiuyuanquanfadiaoshishixiangtong。ruodongtaijianchabuhege,huozaiyunxingzhongfaxianyouxieloudengyichangqingkuangshi,zeyingzuojietijiancha。jietihouzixijianchaanquanfadesuoyoulingbujianyouwuliewen、shanghen、mosun、fushi、bianxingdengqingkuang,binggenjuquexiandedaxiaohesunhuaichengduyuyixiufuhuogenghuan,zuihouzuzhuang,jinxingdongtaijiancha。

tezhongshebeishiyongdanweiyaogaoduzhongshianquanfadeguzhangxiaochu、weixiuhejiancha(weihu)gongzuoyijixiangguanshigudejiaoxunjingshiheanquanfazaichengyaleitezhongshebeishangdezhongyaoxing。tezhongshebeishengchan、shiyongdanwei,youqishizhong、xiaoxingminyingshigetiqiyeyingrenzhenxuexi,guanchezhixing《tezhongshebeianquanjianchatiaoli》,yangezunshouanquancaozuoguichengheguizhangzhidu,chuduizaiyongdechengyaleitezhongshebeibentijinxingjingchangxingderichangweihubaoyanghejianchawai,yeyaoduiqianquanfujiananguidingjinxingdingqixiaoyanheweihu,bingnarutezhongshebeianquanguanligongzuo,duifaxiandeyinhuan,jishizhenggai,xiaochuyinhuan,bingzhenzhengluoshiqiyezhutizeren,quebaotezhongshebeideanquanyunxing。


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