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zhaiyao:qiufashijinnianlaibeijiaoweiguangfancaiyongdeyizhongfamen,zaishiyou、huagong、yejin、qingfang、shipin、yuanzineng、hangkongdengbumendedaoguangfanshiyong。qiufayoufudongshi、gudingshiliangdalei,benwenzhuyaoduifudongshidakoujingqiufademifengxing、qibilijudengzuocuqiandetantao。

關鍵詞浮動球閥密封性能啟閉力矩

概述

球閥。是應用較為廣泛的閥門之一,它出現很早,推廣使用較晚。它的工作原理與旋塞閥一樣,都是靠旋轉閥芯來使閥門啟閉的,但比旋塞閥開關輕便,相對體積小,可以做成大口徑閥門。球閥密封可靠,結構簡單,維修方便,密封面與球體常在閉合狀態,不易被介質沖蝕。目前,國外球閥口徑己達 3050cm,在石油、化工、冶金、輕紡、食品、原子能、航空等部門廣泛使用。

1 球閥的分類

qiufafenweiliangdalei:fudongshi、gudingshi(jiantu 1、tu 2)。

浮動式球閥圖片
圖 1 浮動式球閥
固定式球閥圖片
圖 2 固定式球閥

1.1 浮動式球球閥

qiufadeqiutishifudongde,zaijiezhiyalizuoyongxia,qiutinengchanshengyidingdeweiyibingjinyazaichukouduandemifengmianshang,baozhengqiufademifeng。fudongqiuqiufadejiegoujiandan,mifengxinghao,danqiutichengshougongzuojiezhidezaihequanbuchuangeilechukoumifengquan,yinciyaokaolvmifengquancailiaonengfoujingshoudezhuqiutijiezhidegongzuozaihe。zhezhongjiegou,guangfanyongyuzhongdiyaqiufa。

1.2 固定球球閥

qiufadeqiutishigudingde,shouyahoubuchanshengyidong。gudingqiuqiufadoudaiyoufudongfazuo,shoujiezhiyalihou,fazuochanshengyidong,shimifengquanjinyazaiqiutishang,yibaozhengmifeng。tongchangzaiyuqiutideshang、xiazhoushangzhuangyouzhoucheng,caozuoniujuxiao,shiyongyugaoyahedakoujingdefamen。weilejianshaoqiufadecaozuoniujuhezengjiamifengdekekaochengdu,jinnianlaiyouchuxianleyoufengqiufa,jizaimifengmianjianyazhutezhiderunhuayou,yixingchengyicengyoumo,qinzengqianglemifengxing,youjianshaolecaozuoniuju,gengshiyonggaoyadakoujingdeqiufa。

benwenzhuyaoduifudongshirenkoujingqiufademifengxingqibilijudengzuocuqiandetantao,xiwangnengduiqiufadeyingyongyousuobangzhu。

2 浮動球閥的密封

fudongqiuqiufadejiegoujiandan,mifengxinghao,danqiutichengshougongzuojiezhidezaihequanbuchuangeilechukoumifengquan,yincimifengquancailiaonengfoujingshoudezhuqiutijiezhidegongzuozaiheshiguanjian。yibanshuolai,mifengquandoushiyongjusifuyixidengdanxingcailiaozhizao,jinshuyufeijinshucailiaozuchengmifengfu,yejiushitongchangchengweiruanmifeng。ruanmifengdemifengxingrongyibaozheng,erqieduimifengbiaomiandejiagongjingduyubiaomiancucaoduyaoqiuyebuhengao。zaijiezhideyalixia,qiutixiangchukouduanweiyibingyajinfazuo,zheshi,qiutiyazaifazuoshangdeli qmj wei:

公式1
式中:DMW—閥座密封面外徑,DMN—閥座密封面內徑,P—介質工作壓力

weilebaozhengdiyashidemifeng,qiufahefazuosuobixudeyujinbiyabuyingxiaoyu 1200n•m,yujinmifengzhuyaokaofazuobenshendedanxing,suoyimifengmiandekuandushishouyidingxianzhide,jisuanshiwei:

公式2
式中:[q]—許用應力(琢明氟乙烯許用應力為 1530N•M)

duiyudaidanxingyuanjiandefazuo,tadegongzuokekaoxingheshiyongqixianhendachengdushangqujueyuzhengquexuanzemifengfazuodeyuyasuoli。

低壓時,在預緊力不足的情況下,將不能保證球閥的密封,過渡的壓縮會引起球體和閥座間的摩擦力矩增加,并可能引起閥座材料的塑性變形。

fazuoyufaticaozhijiandejianxi δ1,shibaozhengqiufazhengchanggongzuodejibentiaojian,zaixuanzejianxi δ1 shi,bixukaolvyuyasuofazuodejunyunzhongchangyingzaizongdedanxingbianxingfanweinei,duicicaiyong:

公式3
式中:DMP—閥座平均直徑;σMJ—彈性變形范圍內閥座橫截面的許用應力,對聚四氟乙烯制閥座,σMJ=820 (N-M);E—閥座材料的彈性模數,對聚四氟乙烯制閥座,E=48000~81600 (N-M)。

fazuodemifengcailiaoyibandoushiyongjusifuyixi,zaixianyousuliaozhong,huaxuewendingxingzuiqiangdeshijusifuyixi,taduihuaxuezuoyongdewendingshenzhichaoguoguizhongjinshujinhebo、boli、taoci、tangci、tezhonggangcaihehejin。huaxuefushixingjiaoqiangdewuzhiyinongsuan、xisuan、nongjianye、zuiqiangdeyanghuajiyebunengduijusifuyixiqirenhezuoyong,you“sukewang”zhicheng。chumouxieluhuaanhuofangxiangjingshijusifuyixisuliaoyouqingweiderongzhangxianxiangzhiwai,tonglei、suanlei、kuleidengyoujirongjiduijusifuyixidouwuzuoyong,buhuifashengzhongliangbianhuajirongzhangxianxiang。duitanengfashengzuoyongdejinweirongrongtaidejianjinshu、sanfuhualvjiyuansufudeng,danyezhishizaigaowen、gaoyaxiazuoyongcaixianzhu。ciwai,jusifuyixiyebushouyanghuoziwaixiandezuoyong,buxishui、juyouburanxing。tajuyouhengaodenairexinghenaihanxing,shiyongwendufanweiwei -180~250℃,zai 250℃ chuli 240h,lixuexingnengwujiangdi,390℃ meixiaoshishizhong 0.006%。tadejiedianxingnengyouliang,bingqiedianxingnengbushoupinlvhewendudeyingxiang,kezai 250℃ xiachangqigongzuo。youshangkezhi,yongjusifuyixizuoweiqiufademifengshijiaoweilixiangde。

jusifuyixidedanxingmoshuzhihenda,yinci,cailiaodexingnengjuedingleqidanxingbianxinghenxiao,yidanchangqibianyong,cailiaodedanxingbuzuyimibumifengmiandemosun,zheshiqiufademifengjiuyaopohuai,yinci,zaishejifazuoshikaolvruhecongjiegoushangzengjiatadedanxing,womenxuanyongledanxingjiegou。

zhezhongfazuoyouruxiatedian:

(1) mifengmianneiyouyigejiaodu 40° ±1;

(2) mifengfazuodibuyouyige r2 debanyuancao;

(3) yufatidepeiheliuyoujianxi δ1 kezengjiadanxing。

jiegouyuanliwei:zaiwuyujinlizhuangpeishi,qiutiyu a dianxiangqie,zhuangpeiyujinlishiqiuzhouweiyi,weiyiyibanzai 0.2~0.4(mm) zhijian,dangqiutishoudaoyalihou,qiutisuiyalifangxiangjintiezaimifengmianshang,zheshimifengquanxiangwaipengzhang,shimifengmianyuqiumianbuhuitiedetaijinerzaochengniujuzengda,xieyahou,mifengfazuojibenshangyouhuifudaoyuanlaianzhuangshideweizhi。

自緊密封,是較為特殊的密封形式,亞博網頁登陸閥門生產的大口徑球閥,閥桿密封全部采用該結構。工作原理是:利用介質壓力進行自緊密封,它的密封圈裝在內錐體外,跟介質相向的一面成一定角度,介質壓力傳給內錐體,以傳遞給密封圈,在一定角度的錐面上產生兩個分力,一個與閥體中心線平行向外,另一壓向閥體內壁,后面這個力便是自緊力,介質壓力愈大,自緊力也愈大,考慮到低壓時的密封,在自緊密封上面必須增加一定的預緊力,保證其密封性能。

3 球閥的扭矩

qiufamocalidedaxiao,bujinqujueyujiezhidegongzuoyalihefamendetongjing,erqieheqiufadexingshi、mifenghezhichengbujiandejiegoujimifengcailiaodexingzhiyouguan,ciwai,meiyijutijiegouzhong,mifengzuoshangdemocalihuanqujueyuqiufazhuandongdejiaodu。

zaizhengchangchayaxiadongzuodeniuju:dangqiufazhuandongkaiqidao 30° shi,chuxianzuidazhi,quankaishi(90°)weiling,shijishang,dangqiufazhuandao 80° shi,yachatongchangdadadixiaoyuzuidazhi。

dangguanbiqiufashiyachazuida,suizhutadedakaichengduzengjiaerzhujianjianxiao,yinerzaiyalihengdingdeqingkuangxia,zuidaliniujuchanshengzhuandongdao 30°~40° shi。qiufadegongzuokehuafenweiergezhuyaojieduan。

(1) congqiutiqidongdaokaishidakaiqiufajieduan,zhegejieduanqiutizhongjinzuoyongzhuyoumifengyuanjianzhongyujinlihegongzuojiezhijingyalisuochanshengdemocali。

(2) congkaishidakaifamendaoqiukongyufamentongdaowanquanzhonghejieduan,zhegejieduanduijingyachachanshengdemocali,huanyaojiashangyouyuyetihuoqitijiezhilizuoyongdeli。

suizhufamendeguanbi,qiutijiangduzhutongkong,zheyang,qiutishangdeliutidongzuolijiangjianxiao,erchayazengda。

4 總摩擦扭矩的計算

famendemocaniujuanxiashijisuan:

MF=MQZ+MFT+MFC (N-M) (4)
式中:MQZ—球體在閥座中的摩擦力矩;MFT—填料與閥桿的摩擦力矩;MFC—閥桿頭部的摩擦力矩

fenxiqiufachanshengdezuoyonglibiaoming,qiufazaijiezhidezuoyongxia,fudongqiutixiangchukouduanweiyi,suochanshengdezuoyongliquanbuyouchukoudefazuomifengquanchengshou,qiuqianfazuomifengquanbuchengshouzuoyongli,tongshiyebuyingxiangmocaniuju。

公式5
式中:f—摩擦系數,對于聚四氟乙烯密封圈 f=0.5

faganzaitianliaozhongdemocalijuqujueyumifengdexingshihegongzuoyalidedaxiao,zaiyajinshi,shangxiamifengquandouchengshoujunyundeyali,tianliaozhongdemocalibuqujueyuqiutidezhuandongjiaodu,suoyi,tianliaodemocalijuanxiashi:

公式6
式中:df—閥桿直徑;h1—單圈填料與閥桿接觸高度;Z1—填料圈數

fagantoubudemocalijukeanxiashi:

公式7
式中:dF、dFT—閥桿頭計算直徑

youshangkezhi,qiufadeqibilijushiyouduofangmianlaijuedingde,duiyutongjing≤100mm,shiyongyalizai 1.6mpa yineideqiufa,qiqibilijubunengchaoguo 60n-m。yishangfenxikezhi,fudongqiufayoutadejuxianxing,youyujiegoushangdeyuanyin,zaidakoujinggaoyalixiahuichuxianniujuchengbeizengjia。yinci,jiubixuxuanyonggudingshijiegoudeqiufa,womenyejiangjinyibujinxingtantaoqishiyongxingneng。


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