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zhaiyao:jieshaolequanhanjieqiufafatijihanjiecailiao、hanjiefangfa、hanjiejiegouhehanjiegongyi,jinxingxiangguanshiyanduihanjiecailiao、jiegoujigongyiyouhuaheyanzheng。

關鎮詞全焊接球閥材抖焊接工藝

一、前言

長輸管線閥門是油氣管道為實現集輸、分輸和調節輸量,以及為實現站內循環、設備連通、倒罐、越站及清管器收發等作業所使用的控制部件;既是保證管道運行安全的設備,又是進行管道輸送自動控制和運行調度的主要工藝設備。

在長輸管線閥門中,尤以管線球閥使用居多。在國家重點管道工程中,主干線截斷閥全部采用進口大口徑全焊接球閥,要求使用壽命必須達到 30 年及以上。支線及站場 26in 以下規格截斷閥采用分體式球閥。綜觀重點管道工程所采用的全焊接球閥,其主要特性有:① 可靠性高,閥體具有足夠強度,外泄漏部位少,活動部件耐磨,在頰繁操作下能長期正常運行。② 密封性好,在高壓和在油、氣長期浸泡下不泄漏。③ 開關靈敏性高。④ 油氣通過時阻力小。③ 重量輕,安裝簡便。⑥ 能在全天候條件下工作。⑦ 具有防火、防靜電等功能。等道工程的發展與建設,極大地促進了管線球閥的設計、制造、工藝的進步,同時對管線球閥提出了更高的要求。

quanhanjieqiufashiyizhongdianxingdehanjiechanpin,muqian,bufenguoneichangjiatongguojishuyinjinhuozizhuyanfadefangshi,yishixianquanhanjieqiufadeguochanhua,gaibianlequanhanjieqiufawanquanyilaijinkoudejumian。danyinqianqishiyongyejideyingxiang,henshaonengzaizhongdiangongchengzhongdedaoyingyong。

從全焊接球閥閥體及焊接材料、焊接方法、焊接結構、焊接工藝及相關試驗等方面進行總結,為全焊接球閥生產廠家的生產指導和用戶使用提供參考。

二、閥體與焊接材料分析

1. 閥體材料成分分析

quanhanjieqiufafaticailiaotongchangcaiyongtansuganghuodihejingang,ru astm a105、a694、a350、a516 deng,qihuaxuechengfenduihanjieshijiejingliewendexingchengyouzhuzhongyaoyingxiang。hanjieshi,hanfengzhongde s、p dengzazhizaijiejingguochengzhongxingchengdirongdiangongjing。qizhongliuduixingchengjiejingliewenyingxiangzuida,danqiyingxiangyouyugangzhongqitayuansuhanzuiyouguan,ru mn yu s jiehecheng mns erchuliu,congerdui s deyouhaizuoyongqiyizhizuoyong。mn huannenggaishanliuhuawudexingneng、xingtaijiqifenbudeng。yinci,weilefangzhichanshengjiejingliewen,duihanfengjinshuzhongde mn/s zhiyouyidingyaoqiu。mn/ss zhiduodacaiyouliganfangzhijiejingliewen,huanyuhantanliangyouguan。han c liangyugao,yaoqiu mn/s zhiyeyugao。si、ni jizazhideguoduocunzaiyehuizengjia s deyouhaizuoyong。

嚴格控制閥體材料采購時的化學成分,制定相關的材料采購標準,是有效避免閥門焊接時產生結晶裂紋的有效途徑之一。

2. 焊絲與焊劑選擇

(1)hansicailiaoxuanze hansizhuyaozuoweitianchongjinshu,xianghanfengtianjiahejinyuansu,zhijiecanyuhanjieguochengzhongdeyejinfanying,qihuaxuechengfenhewulixingnengbujinyingxianghanjieguochengzhongdewendingxing、hanjiejietouxingnenghezhiliang,tongshihuanyingxiangzhuhanjieshengchanlv。

hansicailiaodexuanzezhuyaogenjufaticailiaolaijinxing。duichangyongfaticailiao,tongchangsuoxuanyongdehansicailiaoyoutansuganghansiru h08mna、dihejinganghansiru h10mn2。tongshi,hansizhijingdexuanzeduihanfengxingzhuangyeyouzhujiaodayingxiang,zaihanjiedianliu、dianhudianya、hanjiesuduyidingshi,hanfengrongshenyuhansizhijingchengfanbi,rongkuanyuhansizhijingchengzhengbi。duiyuquanhanjieqiufachangcaiyongdemaihuzidonghan,qihansizhijingyibanwei 2.5~6mm。

(2)hanjicailiaoxuan zehanjizaihanjieguochengzhongqigelikongqi、baohuhanfengjinshubushoukongqijinhaihecanyurongchijinshuyejinfanyingdezuoyong。danghansiquedinghou,peitaoyongdehanjizechengweiguanjiancailiao,tazhijieyingxianghanfengjinshudelixuexingneng(tebieshisuxingjidiwenrenxing)、kangliexingneng、hanjiequexianfashenglvjihanjieshengchanlvdeng。

這就要求焊劑必須具有良好的冶金性能和工藝性能;顆粒度符合要求(普通焊劑顆粒度為 0.45~2.50mm,0.45mm 以下的細粒不得大于 5%,2.50mm 以上的粗粒不得大于 2%;細顆粒度焊劑粒度為 0.28~1.425mm,0.28mm 以下的細粒不得大于 5%,1.425mm 以上的粗粒不得大于 2%);含水量 w(H2O)≤0.10%;機械夾雜物的含量不得大于 0.30%(質量分數);含硫磷量 w(S)≤0.060%,w(P)≤0.080%。

genjusuoxuanyonghansicailiao,jifaticailiaohuaxuechengfen,hanjiduoxuanyonggaoguixingronglianhanjihuogaojiandushaojiexinghanji。

三、焊接坡口形式

quanhanjieqiufacaiyongmaihuzidonghan,peiheyikonglenghuofenglengfangshijinxinghanjie。

changshuguanxianqiufaduangangfatibihoutongchangzai 40~50mm yishang,yicaiyongzhaijianxipokoumaihuhan,pokoudicengjianxiwei 8~35mm,pokoujiaoduwei 1°~7°,meicenghanfengdaoshuwei 1~3,changcaiyonggongyidianbandadihan。weishihansisongdazhaipodiceng,xushejinengcharenpokouneidezhuanyongzhaihanzui,hansixiangxiashenchangduchangqu 45~75mm,yihuodejiaogaorongfusulv。hanjieshicaiyongzhuanyonghanji,qikeliduyibanjiaoxi,tuozhaxingyingtehao,bingmanzugaoqiangrenxinghanfengjinshuxingneng。weibaozhenghansihedianhuzaishenerzhaipokouneidezhengqueweizhi,biyaoshixucaiyongzidonggenzongkongzhi。

四、焊接過程及分析

1. 影響焊縫形狀、性能的因素

(1)hanjieyicanshudeyingxiang

1)hanjiedianliu。dangqitatiaojianbubianshi,rongshenyuhanjiedianliubianhuachengzhengbi,dianliuxiao,rongshenqian,yugaohekuandubuzu;dianliuguoda,rongshenda,yugaoguoda,yichanshenggaowenliewen。

2)dianhudianya。dianhudianyayudianhuchangduchengzhengbi,zaixiangtongdedianhudianyahehanjiedianliushi,ruguoxuanyongdehanjibutong,dianhukongjiandianchangqiangdubutong,zedianhuchangdubutong。dangqitatiaojianbubianshi,dianhudianyadi,rongshenda,hanfengkuanduzhai,yichanshengreliewen;dianhudianyagaoshi,hanfengkuanduzengjia,yugaobugou。maihuhandedianhudianyashiyijuhanjiedianliudiaozhengde,jiyidinghanjiedianliuyaobaochiyidingdehuchangcaikenengbaozhenghanjiedianhudewendingranshao,suoyidianhudianyadebianhuafanweishiyouxiande。

3)hanjiesudu。hanjiesududuirongshenherongkuandouyouyingxiang,tongchangqingkuangxiarongshenherongkuanyuhanjiesuduchengfanbi。hanjiesududuihanfengduanmianxingzhuangyeyouyingxiang,yibanhanjiesuduguoxiao,ronghuajinshuliangduo,hanfengchengxingcha;hanjiesudujiaodashi,ronghuajinshuliangbuzu,rongyichanshengyaobian。shijihanjieshi,weiletigaoshengchanlv,zaitigaohanjiesududetongshibixujiadadianhugonglv,cainengbaozhenghanfengzhiliang。

4)hansizhijing。hanjiedianliu、dianhudianyahehanjiesuduyidingshi,rongshenyuhansizhijingchengfanbiguanxi,danzhezhongfanbiguanxisuidianliumidudezengjiaerjianruo。

(2)gongyitiaojianduihanfengchengxingdeyingxiang

1)hanfengpokouxingzhuang、jianxideyingxiang。zaiqitatiaojianxiangtongshi,zengjiapokoushenduhekuandu,hanfengrongshenzengjia,rongkuanlveyoujianxiao,yugaoxianzhujianxiao。

2)hanjiduigaodeyingxiang。hanjiduigaoyingbaozhengzaisijizhouweimaizhudianhu,yibanzai 25~40mm。dangshiyongnianjiehanjihuoshaojiehanjishi,youganmiduxiao,hanjiduigaobironglianhanjigaochu 20%~50%。hanjiduigaoyueda,hanfengyugaoyueda,rongshenyueqian。

3)hansi、hanzuiyugongjianqingjiaoduihanfengchengxingyeyoujiaodadeyingxiang。zaiquanhanjieqiufahanjieguochengzhong,yingjinliangbaozhenghanzui、hansichuizhigangongjianbiaomian。

2. 焊接及分析

hanjieshiyancaiyongyuantongjinxing,cailiao a105。qizhuyaomudeshishiyanyanzhenghequedingfatiyuancailiao、hansizhijing、hanjipaihao,youhuahanjiepokoujiegoujihanjiecanshu,yucehekongzhihanjieshiwendubianhua、bianxinglianghehanjiecanliuyingli,weiquanhanjieqiufadeshengchanshejitigongcankaoyiju。hanjieshiyanxitongyoudianliudianyaceliangxitong、weiyibianxingceliangxitong、wenduceliangxitongsanbufenzucheng。

1)焊接時溫度側定。根據溫度測定的結果(如圖 1 所示),在球閥焊接時,控制層間溫度不超過閥座密封圈的安全使用溫度 150℃,不會對閥門密封性能造成影響。

距離焊縫中心 25mm 處的溫度變化曲線圖(圖 1)
圖 1 距離焊縫中心 25mm 處的溫度變化曲線圖

2)hanjiebianxingdeceding。yuantonghanjiecaiyongneijingwei 600mm,houdu 50mm zuoyoudeyuanjianjinxing。hanjieshiyuantongliangduanwushufu,hanjiewanchenghou,cededeyuantongbianxingzhouxiangfangxiangyuewei 2.5mm,jingxiangfangxiangyuewei 1.5mm。zaiquanhanjieqiufashejiguochengzhong,xukaolvcihanjiebianxingduiqiufamifengxingnengdeyingxiang,shidangdiaozhengfazuoyufatizhijiandepeihejianxi。

hanjieshikecaiyongbutongdefuzhufangshirufengleng、zhendong,gaishanhanjieshigongjiandebianxing。tongchangqingkuangxia,zhendonghanjieshibianxingjiaoxiao,fenglengqici。

3)hanjiecanliuyinglideceding。hanhoutongguobutongkongfacelianghanjiecanliuyingli。hanjiecanliuyinglifenbuquxianrutu 2 suoshi。

殘留應力分布圖(圖 2)
圖 2 殘留應力分布圖

cedingjieguobiaoming,julihanfengzhongxinweizhiyueyuan,canliuyingliyuexiao。duiqiufafatihanfengjiegoujinxinghelidesheji,keyouxiaojiangdifatihanjiehouyinbianxingerchanshengdecanliuyingli。tongshi,hanjieshicaiyongbutongdefuzhufangshiruzhendong、fengleng,kebutongchengdushangjiangdihanjiehoucanyuyingli。tongchangqingkuangxia,zhendonghanjiekeyouxiaoshifanghanjiehoudecanliuyingli。

hanjiewanchenghou,x shexiantanshanghechaoshengbotanshangwanquanhege;lixuexingnengpingding,lashenshiyan、chongjishiyanhecewanshiyanhege;hanfengreyingxiangquan jb4708 cedinghege。

五、結語

quanhanjieqiufashiyizhongdianxingdezhaijianximaihuhanhanjiechanpin,shejicailiaokexue、hanjiegongyixue、hanjiezhuangbeizidonghuayanzhi,sanweiredansuxingyouxianyuanjisuanyijiguanxianqiufadeshejidengduofangmiandezhishi。suizhuxiqidongshu、xibuyuanyouchengpinyou、chuanqidongsongdengdapiguojiazhongdianguandaogongchengdeshigongjianshe,jidadicujinlequanhanjieqiufaguochanhuajishu、zhuangbei、zhizaojigongyidejinbu,jingzhubuquxiangchengshuhewanshan,kaishixiangdakoujing、gaoyalifangxiangfazhan。

tongguoduihanfengchengxinghehanfengjinshulixuexingnengdeyingxiangyinsu,yijiduihanjieshiyanjieguodefenxi,helidishejifamenfatijiegou、hanfengpokouxingshi、fazuojiegou,yangekongzhifatiyuancailiaodehuaxuechengfen,xuanyonghelidehansihanjijigongyicanshu,caiyongzhaijianxipokouduodao、duocenghanjie,shishikongzhihanjieguochengzhongdecengjianwendu,wanquankemanzuquanhanjieqiufadehanjieshengchanyaoqiu。


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