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在實際生產中,球閥殼體零件的內球面由于位置特殊,加工難度較大,尤其對于加工精度要求較高的零件,為了保證加工質量,就必須制定合理的加工工藝,并設計專用夾具和刀具。本文以球閥殼體的加工為例,介紹一種簡單、實用的內球表面車削加工方法及其刀具設計。

1 球閥殼體內表面加工方案

ketilingjiandeneibiaomianjiagongkeyicaiquchexue、xianxue、moxuedengduozhongfangfa。weilejiagongtu 1 suoshideqiufaketi,ciqiancengcaiyongchengxingxiandaofenbieduiqiutidelianggeneibiaomianjinxingxianxuejiagong,danjiagongjingduweinengdadaoyaoqiu。yinci,gailingjiandejiagongbeilieweixiaoneikeyanketijinxinggongguan。

球閥殼體剖面圖(圖 1)
圖 1 球閥殼體剖面圖

tongguofenxi,jiagonggailingjianneibiaomianzuilixiangdefangfashicaiyongchexuejiagong。youyuyongputongchechuangshoudongchexuehennanbaozhengqiumiandechicunjingduhebiaomianzhiliang,zaochengyuqitalingjianpeiheshi,nanyishixianlianghaodemianjiechu,yincibixucaiyongshukongchexue,yibaozhengjiagongjingdu。

youyugaifatideneibiaomianjinsiyuyigefengbiqiuti,jiagongshidaojujinchuhenbufangbian。rucaiyongputonghuodaojiagong,youyudaoganxuanshenchangduchaoguole 75mm,yincihennanbaozhengqigangxing。yinci,helishejidaojushishixianjiagongdeguanjianbuzou。

2 刀具的設計

weilebianyudaojujinchugongjianneiqiang,daotoudechicunbuyiguoda。weici,shejileyigehuodongdaotou。zhezhongdaotoubujinyaojiejuedaojujinchugongjiandewenti,erqiezaipinfandezhuangchaiguochengzhong,bixuquebaodaojudeweizhijingdu。chedaodezhuangpeijiantu 2。daogancailiaoxuanyong 45 gang(rechulizhi hrc40-45)。chedaocaiyongzhongxinzhangaizhiercheng。daotoudecaokonghedaogandecaojuncaiyongshukongxianqiegejiagongercheng,caiyongguodupeihe,bingyongluodingzaiyiduanguding,yibaozhengdaojuzai x fangxiangcuandongzuixiao。daotoudefenjiejiantu 3。chedaozaidaotouneikeyan x fangxiangdiaozheng,bingyongluodingguding。

車刀裝配圖(圖 2)
圖 2 車刀裝配圖
刀頭分解圖(圖 3)
圖 3 刀頭分解圖

3 刀尖圓弧半徑的誤差補償

zaishijijiagongzhong,suoyongdaojiandouyouyigebanjingbudadeyuanhu。erzaishukongchexuebianchengzhong,weilefangbianqijian,tongchangjiangdaojiankanzuoyigedian(tu 4 zhongde a dian)。zaiduidaoshi,yibanshiyichedaodejiaxiangdaojianzuoweidaoweidian,yinci,zaichexuejiagongshi,youyujiaxiangdaojianyushijidaojuqiexuediandeyundongguijibuyizhi,ruguobucaiqubuchangcuoshi,jiukenengchanshengjiagongwucha。suiranzaiqiexueduanmian、neijinghewaijingshibuhuichanshengwucha,danzaiqiexuezhuimianheyuanhushihuichanshengshaoqiehuoguoqie。

假想刀尖與刀尖圓角(圖 4)
圖 4 假想刀尖與刀尖圓角(A.假想刀尖 B.實際刀具切削點)

weilexiaochuchedaodaojianyuanjiaoyinqidejiagongwucha,shouxianyaozhidaodaojianyuanjiaobanjingdedaxiao。yongdaojuceliangyiduidaojianjinxingceliangdejieguowei r0.21mm。

jiagongsuoyongchechuangdeshukongxitongwei fanuc oi-mate,juyoudaojianyuanhubanjingbuchanggongneng,yincikeyongdaojubanjingbuchangzhiling(g41,c42)jinxingdaojianyuanjiaobanjingbuchang。anzhaodaojulujingqianjinfangxiang,daojuweiyugongjianyouce,yinciyingcaiyong g42 daobuzhiling。daojubuchangyujiaxiangdaojianxiangduiyudaojianyuanjiaozhongxindefangweiyouguan(gongyou 8 zhongfangwei),tu 4 defangweidaimawei 3。quedingxiangguancanshuhou,xianyongshiqiefaquedingchedaozai x zhouhe z zhoudeweizhi,bingshurenbuchangzhi,ranhoushurendaojianyuanhubanjing r hejiaxiangdaojianfangweidaima t(jian《biao 1》)。

《表 1》 刀具補償表
刀補號 X Z R T
01 120 90 0.21 3

shukongjiagongchengxuruxia:

cujiagongchengxu……

n50 g00 x0 z37

n60 g42 g01 z35

n70 g03 x0 z0 r37 f0.05

n80 g40 g00 z37

……

zhiyaoanzhaodinghaodeweizhijiangdaojuzhiwei,jikejinxingjiagong。qiexuewanbihou,tongguozhijing φ28 dekongchaixiadaotou,yan z zhouyizoudaogan(x fangxiangbudong),ranhouchaixiagongjian,zhuangshangxinlingjianhou,zaijiangdaoganzhiwei,zhuangshangdaotou,jikejixujiagong。

jiancejieguobiaoming,yonggaifangfajiagongchudeqiufaketilingjiandechicunjingduhebiaomianzhiliangwanquanhege。

weiqiufaketidedapiliangjiagongershejidehuodongdaotoujibaozhenglejiagongjingdu(tongxindu),youbianyuzhuangchai(zhuangchaishijianjinxu 20 duomiao),ertongguoduidaojianyuanhubanjingdewuchabuchang,youxiaobaozhengleyuanhumianbanjingchicundejiatujingdu。zhezhongjiagongfangfashihedaduoshuyouchaixiekongdeqiufaketineibiaomianjiagong。


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