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zhaiyao:benwenduibuxiugangqiufademifengjiegouzuolechubutantao。zhongdianfenxileqiufazhumifengjiegoudexingshi,mifengcailiaodexuanzedengyingxiangqiufamifengxingnengheshiyongxingneng、kekaoxingdeyinsu,tichuledanxingzhangquanhejusifenyixichunshimifengzuozuchengdezuhexingmifengzuodejiegouxingshi。

關鍵詞球閥密封結構組合型密封座

球閥以其眾所周知的特點,廣泛應用于各種管路系統的快速切斷、改變介質流向和自動控制,可采用手動、電動或氣動等驅動方式。圖 1 為球閥的典型結構(未考慮驅動方式)。

球閥結構圖
圖 1

zaiqiufadeshiyongxingnengzhong,mifengxingshiqizhuyaozhibiaozhiyi。congtu 1 kejian,qiufademifengjiegouzhuyaoyousanbufenzucheng,qiyiweizhu、fufatijiandemifeng,youmifengdiaozhengdianpianshixian;qierweizhufatiyufaganjiandemifeng,youbiaozhun“v”xingtianliaohuo 0 xingmifengquanshixian,zuchengqiufadewaimifengjiegou。qisanweiqiutiyuzhu、fufatijiandemifeng,youmifengzuoshixian,zuchengqiufadezhumifengjiegou。zhumifengjiegoudemifengxingyingxiangqiufadegongzuoxingneng,shiqiufashejihezhizaozhongguanjiandemifengjiegou。benwenjiangzhongdiantaolunqiufazhumifengdefeijinshumifeng(youchengruanmifeng)jiegouwenti。

1 球閥的密封性要求

球閥的密封性指標由內泄漏和外泄漏要求確定,國家標準規定非金屬密封球閥的密封性按 GB/T13927《通用閥門壓力試驗》的 A 級執行,要求“在試驗持續時間內無可見泄漏”;航天行業標準規定地面氣體管路系統用球閥“在 0.05 MPa 和 1.1 倍公稱壓力的氣壓條件下,保壓 3 min ,內泄漏率應不大于 3×10-5 Pa·m3/s(無氣泡逸出);在 1.1 倍公稱壓力的氣壓條件下,保壓 3 min ,外泄漏率應不大于 1×10-5 Pa·m3/s(無氣泡逸出)。”

2 影響球閥密封性的主要因素

yingxiangqiufamifengxingdezhuyaoyinsuyoumifengmiandecucaoduheqiutiyuanducanshu。zhongsuozhouzhi,wuluncaiyongruhexianjindejiagongjishu,doubukenengwanquanxiaochuqiutideyuanduwuchajimifengmiandeweiguanquexian,yinci,weiledadaolianghaodemifengxiaoguobingbaozhengjiagongguochengkeyishixian,bixuquedingheshidemifengmiancucaoduheqiutiyuanducanshuzhi。youguanziliaotuijian,qiutimifengmiandecucaodu ra zhizuidayunxuzhiwei 0.4 µm;mifengzuocucaodu ra zhizaiyijusifuyixiweimifengcailiaoshizuidayunxuzhiwei 0.8 µm。qiumiandeyuandugongcha,an gb/t1184 fubiao 2 de 6 jijingdujiaoweiheshi。

3 球閥主密封結構分析

zaoqideqiufa,yibancaiyongjinshucailiaozuoweimifengjiegou(youchengyingmifeng),suizhugongchengsuliaojishudefazhan,youqishijusifenyixidechuxian,shiqiufamifengjiegouyouleyizhongjiaoweilixiangdemifengcailiao。changjiandeqiufazhumifengjiegouderuanmifengxingshiyougangxingmifengzuo、daidanxingyuanjiandemifengzuo、jusifuyixichunshimifengzuohedanxingzhangquanyujusifuyixichunshimifengzuozuchengdezuhexingmifengzuodengxingshi。chunshimifengzuojuyoudechunxingjiegou,shiqijuyoujiaohaodedanxing,zaishiyongzhongkebaozhengmifengmiandeyuyasuoliangbingkeduimifengmiandeyuyasuoliangjinxingbuchangeryouyugangxingjiegou。danshiyongzhongfaxian,jusifuyixidedansuxingbianxingnenglijizaiwendubianhuatiaojianxiadewendingxingrengbushifenlixiang,qiejuyoujiaodadelengliuquxiang;tongshi,youyuqiufadeshiyongyalibianhuafanweijiaoda,yinci,caiyongjusifuyixizuoweimifengcailiaozhichengdechunshimifengzuo,zaijiaodiyalitiaojianxiahuochangqishiyongzhongrengyichanshengxielou。jiejuezheyiwentidefangshiweicaiyongdanxingzhangquanyujusifuyixichunshimifengzuozuchengdezuhexingmifengzuo,takeyikaojinshucailiaodanxingzhangquanlianghaodedansuxingbianxingnengli,zengqiangqizhengtidedansuxingbianxingnenglihebuchangnengli,tigaoqiufademifengnengli。

3.1 球閥密封條件

要保證球閥達到規定的密封要求,須借助介質的壓力推動球體(浮動式球閥)或密封座(固定式球閥)產生微小位移,使密封座表面產生一定的彈塑性變形,形成必要的密封比壓。密封比壓過高將會導致密封座所受比壓超過材料的許用比壓而損壞,使密封失效,還會導致操作力矩升高而影響動作性能;過低則會使密封座表面的彈塑性變形量不足以補償球體的加工誤差,導致主密封不能達到規定的密封要求。

球閥的密封條件為:qMF < q < [q]
式中:qMF — 保證密封所必須的密封面比壓; [q] — 密封面的許用比壓;q — 計算的實際比壓。

3.2 浮動式球閥的密封機理

rutu 1 (a) suoshi,youyuqiutixiaduanwugudingzhicheng,fudongshiqiufaguanbishi,zaijiezhiyalizuoyongxia,qiutijiangchanshengyidingdefudongliang(weiyi),likairenkouduanmifengzuoeryajinzaichukouduanmifengzuoshang,shijiezhizaichukouduanmifengzuoshoudaozujie。jifudongshiqiufashijishangzhiyouchukouduanmifengzuofahuimifengzuoyong,errenkouduanmifengzuoyuqiutijianbaochiyihenxiaodefudongjianxi。

3.3 固定式球閥的密封機理

gaoyahuogongchengtongjing dn ≥ 200 mm deqiufa,changcaiyonggudingshijiegou。gudingshiqiufadeqiutibuchanshengfudongliang,kebaozhengshuangxiangmifeng,shifamendecaozuoniujujiangdi;mifengzuoshangdezaihebodongfudujiaoxiao。gudingshiqiufakefenweiqiuqianmifengshi(renkoumifengshi)heqiuhoumifengshi(chukoumifengshi)qiufa,jiantu 2 。

球前密封式球閥和球后密封式球閥結構圖
圖 2

3.4 密封座的預壓縮考慮

weilebaozhengqiufazaijiezhigongzuoyalijiaodishidemifengxing,qiutihemifengzuojianbixuxingchengyidingdeyujinbiya。

zaigangxingmifengzuozhong,qiufagongzuodekekaoxingheshiyongshoumingqujueyuzhengquexuanzemifengzuodeyuyasuoliang。yuyasuoliangbuzu,bunengbaozhengqiufadediyamifengxing;yuyasuoliangguoda,huidaozhiqiutiyumifengzuojiandemocalijuzengjia,yingxiangqiufadedongzuoxingneng;bingkenengyinqimifengzuodesuxingbianxing,daozhimifengshixiao。duiyujusifuyiximifengzuo,qiyujinbiyayibanyingwei 0.1 pn,qiebuxiaoyu 1.02 mpa 。gangxingmifengzuoyuyasuoliangdediaozhengkaogaibianmifengdiaozhengdianpiandehoudushixian,mifengdiaozhengdianpianjiagongdewuchahuiyingxiangdiaozhengdexiaoguo;helidezhuangpeiyudiaozhengshihuodelianghaomifengxingdeguanjian。zaishiyongzhong,mifengzuomosunhou,yujinbiyadezidongdiaojienenglihencha,yincigangxingmifengzuojiegouqiufadeshiyongshoumingxiangduijiaoduan。

jiejuewentidetujingzhiyishicaiyongdaidanxingyuanjiandemifengzuo。cishi,yuyasuoliangdehuodeyudiaozhengbuzaiyikaomifengdiaozhengdianpianeryoudanxingyuanjianlaishixian。daidanxingyuanjiandemifengzuochukehuodebiyaodeyuyasuoliangwai,huankezaidanxingyuanjiandedanxingbianxingfanweineiduiyujinbiyajinxingbuchang,yinci,qiufadeshiyongshoumingxiangduijiaochang。

3.5 帶彈性元件的密封座結構

(l)danxingyuanjianweidiexingdanhuangdemifengzuo,jiantu 3。

帶蝶形彈簧的密封座示意圖
圖 3 帶蝶形彈簧的密封座

(2)danxingyuanjianweidanhuangdemifengzuo,jiantu 4。

帶圓柱螺旋彈簧的密封座示意圖
圖 4 帶圓柱螺旋彈簧的密封座

tu 3、tu 4 suoshidaidiexingdanhuanghuodaiyuanzhuluoxuandanhuangdemifengzuoyizaifeifushixingjiezhiqiufazhongguangfanyingyong。danshi,youyunanyixuanzedaokenaiqiangfushixingjiezhi,tongshiyoujuyoulianghaodanxingdedanxingyuanjiancailiaoyijicileicailiaoderechuligongyibijiaofuza,cileimifengzuojiegouzaiqiangfushixingjiezhiqiufazhongyingyongshangbuduo。

(3)zuhexingchunshimifengzuo

采用彈性脹圈的組合型唇式密封座示意圖
圖 5 采用彈性脹圈的組合型唇式密封座

tu 5 suoshiweidanxingzhangquanhejusifuyixichunshimifengzuodezuhexingmifengzuo。danxingzhangquandecailiaokexuanze 1cr18ni9ti huo 1cr18ni9,yidadaoyuqiangfushixingjiezhixiangrong。tu 6 weidanxingzhangquandejiegouxingshi;tu 7 weijusifuyixichunshimifengzuodejiegouxingshi。congtu 6、tu 7 kekanchu,jusifenyixichunshimifengzuochunkoudeshejijiaoduwei 30°,erdanxingzhangquanchunkoudewei 34°。

彈性脹圈結構密封座結構圖
圖 6 彈性脹圈結構密封座結構圖

聚四氟乙烯唇式密封座的結構圖
圖 7 聚四氟乙烯唇式密封座的結構圖

zaijieyalixia,danxingzhangquandedanxinglikebuchangdanyijusifuyixicailiaomifengzuodansuxingbianxingnenglibuzudequedian,tigaoleqiufamifengdekekaoxingheshiyongshouming。zaijiezhiyalijiaodideqingkuangxia,youyudanxingzhangquanchunkouhejusifuyixichunshimifengzuochunkoucunzaijiaoduchayijijinshuzhangquanjiaoqiangdedansuxingbianxingnengli,shijusifuyixichunshimifengzuozaidanxingzhangquandanxinglidezuoyongxiaxingchengwaizhangqingxiang,xiangqiutiyajin,chanshengyuyasuoli,buchangjiezhiyalijiangdidaozhidemifengbiyabuzu。zhiyaochuyudanxingzhangquandedanxinglifanweinei,jikebaozhengqiufazaijiaodiyalitiaojianxiadekekaomifeng。

3.6 浮動式球閥密封座結構

fudongshiqiufamifengzuojiegoujiantu 8。

剛性密封座示意圖
圖 8 剛性密封座

tu 8 suoshidegangxingmifengzuobenshenmeiyourenhedanxingbianxing,qiufawanquanyikaojiezhiyalixingchengbixudemifengbiya,gaijiegouduiwenchadebianhuajiaomingxian,mifengxinghecaozuoniujuyishouwendubianhuadeyingxiang。

唇式密封座示意圖
圖 9 唇式密封座

tu 9 suoshichunshimifengzuoyouyuchunbujuyouyidingdedanxingbianxingnengli,mifengzuoheqiutijianshizhongcunzaiyidingdaxiaodeyuyasuoli,kebuchangyouyuwendubianhuadengyuanyindaozhideyuyasuolidebianhua,shiqiufajuyoujiaohaodemifengxing。

zongshangsuoshu,jiejueqiufamifengxingdeguanjianzaiyumifengzuodejiegouxingshihemifengzuocailiaodexuanze。genjubutongdejiegouheshiyongyaoqiu,helixuanzemifengzuodejiegouxingshi,baozhengmifengzuolianghaodejiagonggongyixing;xuanzexingnengyouliang、shiyingshiyongyaoqiudemifengcailiao,manzuqiufamifengxingyaoqiu,tigaoqiufagongzuodekekaoxingheshiyongshouming,shiqiufashejizhongyingzhongdiankaolvdewenti。


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