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zhaiyao:fenxilediaojiefazhendonghezaoshengchanshengdeyuanyin,tichuleyouzhenduixingdegaijinhefangfancuoshi。

關鍵詞調節閥振動噪聲防范措施

1 概述

調節閥是流體機械(包括電力機械、化工機械、流體動力機械等)中控制通流能力的關鍵部件,其性能和安全性與整個裝置的工作性能、效率和可靠性密切相關。在煉油、石油化工和發電等工業生產過程中,經常出現調節閥的振動、噪聲與閥桿轉動現象,甚至由于振動導致閥桿斷裂等事故也時有發生,嚴重影響設備的安全和壽命以及操作人員的身心健康。克服調節閥振動與噪聲,延長其使用壽命已經引起許多設計制造部門和研究單位的高度關注。

2 原因分析

diaojiefadezhendongyuzaoshenggenjuqiyoufayinsubutong,dazhikefenweijixiezhendong、qishizhendongheliutidonglixuezhendongdengyuanyin。

2.1 機械振動

jixiezhendonggenjuqibiaoxianxingshikeyifenweiliangzhongzhuangtai。yizhongzhuangtaishidiaojiefadezhengtizhendong,jizhenggediaojiefazaiguandaohuojizuoshangpinfanzhandong,qiyuanyinshiyouyuguandaohuojizuojuliezhendong,yinqizhenggediaojiefazhendong。ciwaihuanyupinlvyouguan,jidangwaibudepinlvyuxitongdeguyoupinlvxiangdenghuojiejinshishoupozhendongdenengliangdadaozuidazhi、chanshenggongzhen。lingyizhongzhuangtaishidiaojiefafabandezhendong,qiyuanyinzhuyaoshiyouyujiezhiliusudejijuzengjia,shidiaojiefaqianhouchayajijubianhua,yinqizhenggediaojiefachanshengyanzhongzhendang。

2.2 氣蝕振動

qishizhendongdaduofashengzaiyetaijiezhidediaojiefanei。qishichanshengdegenbenyuanyinzaiyudiaojiefaneiliutisuoliujiasuhejingyaxiajiangyinqiyetiqihua。diaojiefakaiduyuexiao,qiqianhoudeyachayueda,liutijiasubingchanshengqishidekenengxingjiuyueda,yuzhiduiyingdezusailiuyajiangyejiuyuexiao。

2.3 流體動力學振動

jiezhizaifaneidejieliuguochengyeshiqishoumoca、shouzuliheraodongdeguocheng。tuanliutitongguobuliangraoliutidediaojiefashixingchengxuanwo,xuanwohuisuizhuliutidejixuliudongdeweiliuertuoluo。zhezhongxuanwotuoluopinlvdexingchengjiyingxiangyinsushifenfuza,bingyouhendadesuijixing,dingliangjisuanshifenkunnan,erkeguanquecunzaiyigezhudaotuoluopinlv。dangzheyizhudaotuoluopinlv(yibaokuogaocixiebo)zaiyudiaojiefajiqifushuzhuangzhidejiegoupinlvjiejinhuoyizhishi,fashenglegongzhen,diaojiefajiuchanshenglezhendong,bingbansuizhuzaosheng。zhendongdeqiangruosuizhudaotuoluopinlvdeqiangruohegaocixiebobodongfangxiangyizhixingdechengduerding。

3 防范措施

從調節閥的使用和理論分析可以證明,誘發調節閥振動和噪聲的因素有很多,這些因素又相互影響,很多都是同時發生的,這就使調節閥的減震降噪更加困難,需要結合閥門材質、結構和流體動力學等方面綜合考慮。

3.1 預防機械振動

(1)diaojiefaanzhuangweizhiyingyuanlizhendongyuan,rubukebimian,yingcaiquyufangcuoshi。

(2)zhengquexuanzelingbujian。ruguofabankuaisudehugaohudidebianhua,famendingweiqilingminduyoutaigao,diaojieqishuchuweixiaodebianhuahuopiaoyi,jiuhuilijizhuanhuanchengdingweiqishuchuxinhaohenda,zhishifazhendang。diaojiefademocalitaixiao,waijieshurenxinhaoyouweixiaodebianhuahuopiaoyi,huilijichuandigeifaban,shiqizhendong。xiangfan,rudiaojiefademocalitaida,zezaixiaoxinhaoshidongzuobule,xinhaodashiyijingdongzuoyouchanshengguodadexianxiang,huishidiaojiefachanshengchizhixingzhendang。yudaozhezhongqingkuang,yingdangjianxiaodiaojiefaxiangyingbufendezunilaijiejue,rugenghuantianliaodeng。

(3)helishejifamenjiegou。weibimianfaganxiangduiyudaoxiangtaotongbiaomiandecexiangyundong,zaigaopinzhendongxiachanshengpilaoduanlie,tigaofamendekangzhennengli,kejiangrongyichengshouwenliuxingshidezhusaijieliujiegoubianweijieliuzhaojieliujiegou,jiangxuanbiliangdingjiandaoxiangfangshigaichengjieliuzhaodaoxiangfangshi,huocaiqusuoxiaodaoxiangjianxi、xuanyonggangxingdaoxianghezhusaitoujijiadafaganzhijingdengfangfa。

3.2 預防氣蝕振動

(1)bimianxiaokaidugongzuo。diaojiefakaidutaixiao,zhishijieliukouchuliusuzengda,yalixunsujianxiao,liutiliujingfamenhenrongyixingchengshanzhengheqishi。suoyiyingbimiandiaojiefachangshijianzaixiaokaiduxiagongzuo,tongshiyingjinliangjianxiaodiaojiefaqianhouyacha。

(2)helidekaichegongyi。shengchanxianchangdekaichegongyiduidiaojiefadeshiyongqingkuangzhiguanzhongyao,duiyugongzuoyalijiaogaoerqianhouyachajiaodidediaojiefagengshiruci。zheshiyinweidiaojiefashigenjushejiyachajinxingxuanxingde,shinengbaozhengzaishejitiaojianxiadezhengchanganquanshiyong。danshishengchanxianchangdekaichegongyidaduodoushifamenguanbideqingkuangxia,shangyouguandaokaishijianya,dangfaqianyalidadaoshejiyaoqiushifamenkaiqi,ercishifahouyalirengranhenxiao,zhejiushifamenchuzaihenxiaodekaidu、hengaodeyachaxiadegongzuozhuangtai,huichanshengyanzhongdezhendangheqishi,yingxiangfamendeshiyongshouming,gengyoukenengsunhuaifamen。suoyixianchangkaicheshi,yingjinliangshiqianhouyalitongshijianlidaoshejitiaojianhou,kuaisukaiqifamen,baozhengfamenzaishejitiaojianxiagongzuo。

(3)duojifenpeiyajiang。diaojiefaqianhouyachabuyingtaida,yinghelidexuanzefamendejiegouxingshijihelidejinxingyachafenpei,ruguotiaojianyunxukeyicaiyongduojijianya,bimianqishidefasheng。

(4)gaijinjiegou。ruogongkuangxitongbuyiyuduojijianyajiegou,yekecaiyongjieliutaotongdejiegou,danshitaotongdejiegouhechicunxuanzeyeyaogenjushijiqingkuang(rujiezhizhongshifouhanyougutikeli)helixuanze。

3.3 預防流體動力學振動

(1)baozhengzhixingjigoudeshuchuli。dangliutitongguodiaojiefashi,fabanzaijingyahedongyadezuoyongxiachanshengqiexianglihezhouxiangli。qiexianglishifabanzhuandong,zhouxianglishifabanyasuohuolashen。suoweidiaojiefadebupinghenglijiushizhiduizhixingchengdefabansuoshoudaodezhouxiangheli。bupinghenglizhijieyingxiangdiaojiefadexingchengweizhiyuzhixingjigouxinhaoyalizhijiandeguanxi。yinci,zhixingjigoudeshuchuliyingzuyikefubupinghengli,yibaozhengdiaojiezhiliang。

(2)gaibianliudongzhuangtai。weilefangzhigaosuqiliujinrenfatihoufashenggaosuxuanliu,kezaidiaojiefadefatiqiangneijiahanyikuaidangqiban。

(3)bimianchanshenggongzhen。weikefuliutiyoufadiaojiefazhendong,yingjiangdiliutixuanwozhudaotuoluopinlvdexingchenggailvhetuanliutibodongyalichangzhonggebodongfenliangzaifangxiang、pinlvdengyizhidegailv。

4 結語

調節閥的結構較為復雜,其內部不穩定流動是典型的非定常復雜內流問題。調節閥的振動和噪聲是受很多因素共同作用而產生的,應充分考慮機械振動、氣蝕振動和流體動力學振動給調節閥帶來的影響。可以采取合理設計閥門材質和結構、減小閥門前后壓差、多級減壓結構和避免閥門在小開度下工作等減振降噪的常用方法。另外調節閥的選型也應留有足夠的安全裕量,以便實際工作狀態改變后有足夠強的工況適應性。


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上一篇:氣動薄膜調節閥幾種常見故障分析及處理


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