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zhaiyao:zhuyaotantaolezaidiaojiefaxuanxingzhongxuyaozhuyidefangzhiqishi、dusai、zaoyindengfangmiandewenti,bingcongxuanxingdejiaodujieshaolefangzhifangfahecuoshi。

關鍵詞調節閥噪音閃蒸氣蝕

生產過程自動化是大規模工業生產中保證效益和質量的重要手段。在生產過程自動化中,用來控制流體流量的調節閥已遍及石油、化工、電站、輕工、造紙、醫藥、船舶、市政等行業的工業自動化系統中。調節閥在穩定生產、優化控制、維護及檢修成本控制等方面都起著舉足輕重的作用。因此,如何選擇和應用好調節閥,使調節閥在一個高水平狀態下運行是一個關鍵的問題。以下主要對調節閥的閃蒸、氣蝕、防止堵塞、嗓音等間題做分析探討。

1 調節閥的閃蒸和氣蝕

qishishiyizhongshuililiudongxianxiang,qishidezhijieyuanyinshiguandaoliutiyinzulidetubianchanshengleshanzhengjikonghua。dangliutiliujingdiaojiefajieliukoushi,liusuturanjijuzengjia,genjuliutinengliangshouhengdinglv,liusuzengjiajingyalibianzouranxiajiang,chukouyalidadaohuozhediyugailiutisuozaiqingkuangxiadebaohezhengqiyashi,bufenyetijiuqihuaweiqiti,xingchengzhengqiyuqitihunhedexiaoqipao,qiyeliangxianggongcundexianxiang,cijiweishanzhengdexingcheng。ruguoxiayouyalihuifudaogaoyuyetidebaohezhengqiyali,qipaozaigaoyadezuoyongxia,xunsuningjieerpolie,qipaopoliedeshunjianxingchengyigechongjili,cichongjilichongzhuangzaifaxin、fazuohefatishang,shiqibiaomianchanshengsuxingbianxing,xingchengyigegecucaodefengwozhakong,cizhongxianxiangjishikonghua,zhebianshiqishixingchengdeguocheng。yinciqishixianxiangjiangdaozhiyanzhongdezaoyin、zhendong、caizhidepohuaideng。

1.1 選型

(1)xuanyongyalihuifuxishuxiaodefamen

在工藝條件允許的情況下盡量選用壓力恢復系數小的閥門,如球閥蝶閥等。如果工藝條件必須使調節閥的壓差 △P>△PT(產生空化的臨界壓差),可以將兩個調節閥串聯起來使用,這樣每個調節閥的壓差 △P 都小于 △PT,空化便不會產生。如果閥的壓差 △P 小于 2.5MPa,一般不會產生氣蝕,即使有氣蝕的產生也不會對材料造成嚴重的損壞。

(2)xuanyongjiaoxingdiaojiefa

youyujiaoxingfazhongdejiezhizhijieliuxiangfatineibuxiayouguandaodezhongxin,erbushizhijiechongjitibi,suoyikedadajianshaochongjifatitibidebaoheqipaoshuliang,congerjianruoleshanzhengpohuaili。

1.2 材料的抗氣蝕性能

congqishidezhijiejieguokan,zaochengsunshangshiyinweicailiaoyingdubuzuyidikangqipaopolieershifangdechongjili,suoyicongzhegejiaoduwomenkeyikaolvcaiyonggaoyingducailiao,yibanchangyongdefangfashizaibuxiugangjitishangjinxingduihanhuopenhansitailaihejin,zailiutiqishichongshuachuxingchengyinghuabiaomian。dangyinghuabiaomianchuxiansunshanghou,keyijinxingerciduihanhuopenhan,zheyangbiannengzengjiashebeideshiyongshouming,tongshiyejianshaoleqiyedeweixiufeiyong。

1.3 調節閥結構

jirankonghuashiyinweiyalidetubiansuoyinqi,erxitongyaoqiudeyajiangyoubunengjiangdi,keyicaiyongjiangyicidadeyalitubianfenjieweiruogancideduojifaxinjiegou(rutu 1),zhezhongjiegoudefaxinkeyibazongyachafenchengjigexiaoyacha,zhujijiangya,shimeiyijidoubuchaoguolinjieyacha。huoshejichengteshujiegoudefaxin、fazuo,rumigongshifaxin、diepianshifaxindeng,doukeyishigaosuliutizaitongguofaxin、fazuoshimeiyidiandeyalidougaoyuzaigaiwenduxiadebaohezhengqiya,huoshiyetibenshenxianghuchongzhuang,zaitongdaojiandaozhigaoduwenliu,shiyetidedongnengyouyuxianghumocaerbianweireneng,kejianshaoqipaodexingcheng。

多級降壓閥芯結構示意圖(圖 1)
圖 1 多級降壓閥芯結構示意圖

1.4 氣蝕系數

butongjiegouxingshidefamenyouqibutongdeqishixishu,jisuangongshiruxia:

氣蝕系數計算公式
式中:H1——閥后(出口)壓力 m;
H2——大氣壓與其溫度相對應的飽和蒸氣壓力之差 m;
△P——閥門前后的壓差 m。

gezhongfamenyouyugouzaobutong,yinciyunxudeqishixishu δ yebutong,rujisuandeqishixishudayurongxuqishixishu,zeshuomingkeyong,buhuifashengqishi。rudiefarongxuqishixishuwei 2.5,ze:

dang δ>2.5,zebuhuifashengqishi。

dang 2.5>δ>1.5 shi,huifashengqingweiqishi。

dang δ<1.5 shi,chanshengzhendong。

當 δ<0.5 的情況繼續使用時,則會損傷閥門和下游配管,閥門的基本特性曲線和操作特性曲線,對閥門在什么時候發生氣蝕是看不出來的,更指不出來在那個點上達到操作極限。通過上述計算則一目了然。從上述計算中,不難看出產生氣蝕和閥后壓強 H1 有極大關系,加大 H1 顯然會使情況改變,改善方法:

  1. 把閥門安裝在管道較低點。
  2. 在閥門后管道上裝孔板增加阻力。
  3. 閥門出口開放,直接蓄水池,使氣泡炸裂的空間增大,氣蝕減小

2 調節閥的堵塞

zainijiang、zhijiang、kuangjiang、shaojiandengchangheyingyongshi,famendusaishichangjiandeguzhangzhiyi。chujiezhibuganjingzaochengdukawai,guandaoneidehanzha,tiexiedengyehuizaochengfamenduka,yinci,zaizhexiegongkuangxiadediaojiefaxuanxingbixukaolvdaobutongfaxingdefangdugongneng。datiyaokaolvyixiajigefangmian:

(1)liuluyueguanghua,yuepingwenguoduyuehao;

(2)genjujisuan,biyaoshiyingsuoxiaofazuozhijing,yitigaojieliusudulaitigao“zijie”xingneng;

(3)zugougangduhetuili(liju)dezhixingjigou;

(4)jiaoxingchengleidefayuanyuanhaoyuzhixingchengleidefa。jiaoxingchengdefakefulezhixingchengfaliulufuzaheshangxiadaoxiangyidukadewenti,jiezhiliujingjiaoxingchengleidefa,sihushizhijieliujinliuchu,zuidianxingdejiuwei“o”xingqiufa,jiuxiangzhiguandaoyiyang,qifangduxingnengzuihao,(jiantu 2);qicijiushiquangongnengchaoqingxingfa、diefadeng。

O 形球閥流路示意圖(圖 2)
圖 2 O形球閥流路示意圖

3 調節閥的噪音

diaojiefashangdezaoyinshishiyouhuagongshengchanzhongdezhuyaowuranyuan。fangzhidiaojiefazaoyinyingcongsanfangmianrenshou。

3.1 振動產生的噪音

zhendongchanshengdezaoyinyibanlaiyuanyufaxindezhendong。rudangfaxinzaitaotongneishuipingyundongshi,keyishifaxinyutaojiandejianxijinlixiaohuozheshiyongyingzhibiaomiandetaotong。rufaxinhuozheqitadezujian,tamendouyouyigeguyouzhendongpinlv,duici,keyitongguozhuanmendezhuzaohuoduanzaochulilaigaibianfaxindetexing,ruyoubiyaoyekeyigenghuanqitaleixingdefaxin。ruyouyufaxinzhendangxingweiyiyinqiliutideyalibodongerchanshengdezaoyin,zhezhongqingkuangyibanshiyouyudiaojiehuiluzhixingqidengdezuniyinsuyinqide,duicikeyizhongxindiaojiezunixishuhuozhezaifaxinweiyifangxiangshangjiashangjianzhensheshi。

3.2 因高速氣流而產生的氣體動力學嗓音

muqianbimianqitidonglixuezaoyinyou 3 zhongfangfa。shouxian,yaoxiaochuzaoyinyuan,xianzhitongguodiaojiefadeliutisudu;qici,caiyongteshujiegoudefati,shiliutitongguofaxinfazuodequzheliuluzhujianjiansu;di 3,yingcaiyongduokongxianliuban,taxishoudiaojiefahoudebufenyajiang,congerjiangditongguodiaojiefadeliusu,congerdadaojiangzaodemude。

3.3 防止液體動力學噪音

qishifashengdetongshihuanchuxianzaoyinhezhendong,zhezhongzaoyin,yejiaoyetidonglixuezaoyin,ruhebimianqishixianxiangdefashengzaiqianmianyiyouchanshu。

zongzhi,diaojiefadexuanzeyaoyindizhiyi,yaozaishijiandeguochengzhongbuduanzongjiehechuangxin,shibeidiaocanshudedaojiaohaodikongzhixiaoguo,yeshidiaojiefadeshiyongshoumingdadazengchang。


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