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zhaiyao:tongguoduizhanjingbengfapilaoshoumingdeyanjiu,jinyibuchanmingbengfashixiaodezhuyaojili。liyong ansys/ls—dyna ruanjiangoujianbengfasanweishitimoxing,monifapanchongjifazuodeguocheng,dedaofapanshoulifenbutu,jucifenximodongxunhuanyingliduibengfapilaopohuaideyingxiang。gaifenxizhuzhongkaolvlezaijiaobianzaihezuoyongxiayinglijizhongduijiasubengfashixiaosuodailaideweihaixing,wanshanlebengfadewuchongjililun。yijubengfapilaoshoumingquxian,duibengfashiyongshoumingjinxinggusuan,bingtichuyizhongbengfajiegougaijindexinfangan,zaiyidingchengdushangyouxiaojianhuanleyinglijizhong,duiyanchangbengfashiyongshoumingjuyouzhongyaodeshiyongjiazhi。

關鍵詞:鉆井泵閥脈動循環應力應力集中疲勞壽命

bengfashizhanjingbengdeguanjianbujianheyisunjianzhiyi,qishejihaohuaizhijieyingxiangdaobengdegongzuoxingnengheshiyongshouming。yifangmian,yaotigaobengfajiechubiaomiannaichongshidenengli,jiubiranyaozengjiajiechumiandebiaomianyingdu,eryingduguogaoyouhuixueruonaichongjidexingneng。lingyifangmian,yaotigaocailiaokangchongjizaihedenengli,jiubixubaozhengcailiaoyoujiaogaoderenxing,xiangyingdeyingduyouhuishouyingxiang。ciwai,jinguanbengfadezonghexingnenghao,danzaibutonggongkuangtiaojianxia,gezhongxingnengbingbuhuitongshifahuizuoyong,qiebengfadejiagongchengbenyehuixiangyingtigao。yinci,yanjiubengfadeshixiaojiliduibengfadeshejizhizaojuyouzhongyaodezhidaozuoyong。

yibaneryan,zaochengzhanjingbengfashixiaodeyuanyinyouchongjipilaopohuaihechongshimolimosun(yelimolixingmosun)liangzhong。ranertongguoduikuangchangbaofeidezhanjingbengfahongguanheweiguanxingmaofenxibiaoming,chongjipilaopohuaishibengfashixiaodezhuyaojili,yincizaibengfashejishi,yaozhongdiankaolvbengfacailiaodekangchongjipilaoxingnengjiyoulingjiandejubuyinglizhuangtaiquedingdepilaoqiangdu。

benwenyijubengfazaiguanbijieduandejianhuamoxinghebengfachongjiguochengdeyouxianyuandonglixuemoxing,zhongdianyanjiubengfachongjishi,fapanyufazuojiechumianshangchanshengyinglijizhongbuweideshoulixingshijichengdu,bingtongguobengfapilaoshoumingquxianduizuidayingliqujinxingpilaoxiaohe,congergusuanbengfadeshiyongshouming。genjupilaoshoumingquxian,yibengfazuiruoquweiduixiang,tongguogaijinbengfadejiegouyijiangdifengzhiyingli,weigaoxiaodiliyongbengfatichukexingxingfangan。

1 泵閥應力分析

suizhuhuosaidewangfuyundong,fapanduifazuochanshengjianxiechongji,bengfachengshouchongjizaihe。jiechumianshangyingliyoubiheshunjiandaochanshengzuidayinglizaidaobengfakaiqishike,rucixunhuanchongji,keyirendingbengfachengshoumodongxunhuanyingli。

zaibengfaguanbijieduandejianhuamoxingzhong,jiadingzaihenxiaodezhihougaodunei,fapanshoulibubian,yunjiasuxiangxiayundong,zhizhiguanbi。genjucimoxingqiuchubengfaguanbishikefapandesuduhejiasudu。

文獻中以油田大量使用的 7# 閥為例,選取錐角為 45°(錐角為錐閥母線與軸線之間的夾角),設定閥開啟時曲柄轉角φ=25°,沖次為 120 次/min,泵壓為 15MPa,在曲柄轉角φ=25°~180°之間,對鉆井泵閥阿道爾夫精確微分方程進行數值仿真,得到閥盤的滯后高度為 0.0056m,在此處的速度為﹣0.4067m/s2。利用簡化模型,可求出泵閥關閉時刻閥盤的速度為﹣19.3676m/s,加速度為﹣33476.65m/s2

yijianhuamoxingdedaodeguanbishikefapandesuduhejiasuduzuoweiyundongbianjietiaojian,liyong ansys/ls—dyna ruanjiangoujianbengfadesanweimoxing,monifapanchongjifazuodeguocheng。anbengfadeshijichicunjianlibengfazhengtimoxing,shenglvemifengquan,genjuzhanbingbengfashijigongkuangshezhicailiaoshuxingjijiheyueshutiaojian,caiyong 8 jiedianliumiantidanyuanjinxingwanggehuahuafen,jianlimoxing,poushiturutu l suoshi。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖1
圖 1 泵閥三維模型剖視圖

yingyongdonglixuelilunfenxichulipengzhuang、huadongjiechujiemianwenti,dedaozhuijiao 45 °、7 #fafapanzaibihejieduanchanshengzuidajubuyinglishideyinglifenbutu,rutu 2。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖2
圖 2 閥盤應力分布圖

由圖 2 得到閥盤在沖擊閥座的過程中,產生的最大局部集中應力為 0.955×109Pa,從而可知泵閥錐面下端應力集中區域承受的脈動循環載荷 0.955×109Pa,周期為 0.5s(泵閥的沖次為 120 次/min),如圖 3。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖3
圖 3 錐面下端應力集中區域受力形式

zaimodongxunhuanyinglizuoyongxia,zhuimianxiaduanyinglijizhongquyugengyixingchengpilaoliewen,shibengfadepilaoqiangduxianzhujiangdi,zheyidianyufazuoshixiaodehongguanxingmaozhongzhuimianxiabufashengyanzhongsuxingbianxingdexianxiangwanquanwenhe。kejian,bengfachongjishiyinglijizhongyinqidechongjipilaoshibengfashixiaodezhuyaoyuanyin。

benwencaiyongsanweijiheshitimoxingdaitiwenxianzhongdeerweipingmianmoxing,jianggezhongleixingdonglizaiheshijiadaojiegoumoxingdetedingshouzaibufen,monizhenshipengzhuangguocheng。liyong ansy/ls—dyna ruanjianyouxianyuanxianshifeixianxingdonglifenxiqiujiechengxu,jisuandedaogengjiajingquedeyinglijie,bingqieduiyinglifenbudefangweiyougengjiazhiguanderenshi。

2 泵閥材料的S-N曲線

zhanjingbengfadezhizaocailiaoguangfancaiyong40crgang,40crgangshudihejinzhongtanjiegougang,jingdiaozhichulihou,juyoukesuxinghao、pilaoqiangdugao、quekouminganxingdi、diwenchongjirenxingyouliangdengtexing。lixuexingnengjianbiao1。

表1 泵閥材料40Cr鋼調質處理態力學性能
σb/MPa σ0.2/MPa δs/% ψ%
1080
950
18.0
58.0

文獻給出了 40Cr 鋼光滑試樣在 105~1010 循環周次范圍內的疲勞壽命(S-N)曲線,如圖 4 所示。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖4
圖4 40Cr鋼S-N曲線

在 105~108周次范圍內,疲勞曲線可用 Basquin 方程式描述:

鉆井泵閥壽命分析公式1

式中σa——疲勞載荷應力幅;
Nf——σa作用下發生疲勞破壞時的載荷循環周次;
σ'f——疲勞強度系數;
b——疲勞強度指數或 Basquin 指數。

jiangshiyanjieguonihededao 40cr gang s-n quxiande basquin fangchengwei:

σa﹣¹=2431×(2Nf-0.0998 (2)

式中 σa﹣¹——對稱循環疲勞載荷應力幅。

zaiduichengxunhuantiaojianxia:

σ-1a﹣¹ (3)

式中 σ-1——對稱循環極限應力。

bashi(3)dairushi(2)dedao 40cr gangdeduichengxunhuanjixianyingliyugaiyinglixiafashengpilaopohuaishidexunhuanzhoucizhijiandeguanxishi:

σ-1=2431×(2Nf-0.0998 (4)

youshi(4)kede 40cr gangshiyangtiaojianpilaojixianshoumingtu,rutu5suoshi。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖5
圖 5 條件疲勞極限壽命圖

3 泵閥疲勞壽命曲線

peterson genjudaliangdeshiyanshuju,dedaozairubianwenduyixia,miaoshuchengshoujiaobianzaihejixielingjiandejiaobianyinglifu、pingjunyingliyucailiaojixiexingnengguanxidefangcheng:

鉆井泵閥壽命分析公式2

式中 σa——交變應力幅;
σm——平均應力;
σb——材料抗拉強度。

材料在不同對稱循環極限應力作用下,都有σm=0,代入式(5)得:σa-1,符合對稱循環應力的特性。在脈動循環條件下,脈動循環極限應力 σ0與脈動循環疲勞載荷應力幅 σa0、平均應力 σm之間關系式為:

鉆井泵閥公式3

dairushi(5)zhongkedecailiaozaitongyishoumingxiasuoduiyingdemodongxunhuanjixianyingliyuduichengxunhuanjixianyinglideguanxishiwei:

鉆井泵閥公式4

式中 σ0——脈動循環極限應力。

youshi(4)yushi(7)kedecailiaofashengpilaopohuaishidexunhuanzhouciyuduiyingdemodongxunhuanjixianyinglideguanxishi:

鉆井泵閥公式5

congerdedaobengfazaimodongxunhuanyinglizuoyongxiadepilaoshoumingquxian,rutu6。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖6
圖 6 泵閥疲勞壽命圖

4 泵閥壽命分析

閥盤在沖擊閥座的過程中,所承受最大局部集中0.955×109Pa。根據泵閥疲勞壽命曲線,對應的脈動循環周次為 2.1×105,即泵閥的使用壽命約為 25h~30h。由于以上簡化模型求解時忽略了實際工況中存在的兩個因素,因此得出的結果與實際泵閥壽命可能略有出入。現對這兩因素分析如下:

yifangmian,zaibengfaguanbijieduanjianhuamoxinghebengfachongjiguochengyouxianyuandonglixuemoxingzhongrenwei,fapanzaigaodu 5.6mmchu,youyuqiangdayalituidongkuaisuxialuo,congerwanquanhulveshuilimozuhedaoguimozu。zaicijieduanfapanshoulipinghengfangchengzhong,youyuzulihulve,qiuchufapanxialuoshidesuduyujiasudubishijiqingkuangxiadesuduyujiasududa。zaishijigongkuangxia,fapancongzuigaoweizhidaoyufazuojiechu,shijianjiduan。fapanyundongxiafangdeyetishoudaoyasuobiandexiangduichoumi(miduzengda),erfapanshangfangdeyetiyouhuibiandexiangduixibo(midujianxiao),yetihuiyouchoumidedifangxiangxibodedifangliudong,youyukuaisuyundongdefapanshangfangchanshengleyetixiboquyu,fapanxiafangdeyetijiuhuijiliraoguofapanxiangfapanshangfangliudong,bingdaidongsizhoudeyetikuaisutianbuzheyiquyu,zheyangbianxingchengleliutiwoxuan。youwoxuandedifangyetiyundongjiasu,yaqianghuijinyibujianxiao,yinci,duiyukuaisuyundongdefapan,xiafangshoudaodeyetiyaqiangyuanyuandayushangfangwoxuanchudeyaqiang,shangxiayaqiangchaduifapanchanshengleyigexiangshangdezuli,zhegezuligenwoxuanyouguan,dingyiweiwoxuanzuli。zailiutizhongyundongdefapansuoshoudezulibaokuomocazulihewoxuanzuli,woxuanzuliyaobimocazulidadeduo,suoyizaiqiujieshibudinghulve。

lingyifangmian,zai ansys monishiyebingweikaolvmifengquandehuanchongzuoyong。mifengquangongzuozhuimiandezhuiduyibanyufapan(huofazuo)zhuiduxiangtong,erqieqianzhetuchuyufapanzhuimianyiwai。zheyangdangfapanxialuoshi,mifengquanshouxianyufazuojiechu,duifapanyufazuojinshumianzhijianchanshengdegangxingjiechuqihuanchongzuoyong。tongshi,youyumifengquanshouxianyufazuojiechu,zaifapanyufazuozhijianmifengyeti,zheyangzaifapanyufazuojinshushangweijiechuzhiqianbianzaijinshujianxingcheng“yedian”,congerkeyijianshaofazuihouguanbishidechongji。

綜上分析可知,模擬求出的集中應力與實際有一定差距。為了使結果更接近于實際數據,可在該模型求出的應力基礎上,再乘一個考慮實際阻力和緩沖的折減系數,該系數可通過實驗測量得出。假設阻力折減系數為φf,緩沖折減系數為φt,則總折減系數φ=φf×φt,實際應力σ=φ×σˊ(σˊ為理論應力),然后參照泵閥疲勞壽命圖,可以求得泵閥的使用壽命。需要強調的是,用理論應力得出的泵閥壽命具有一定的安全余量,可以為現場人員及時更換泵閥提供參考。

5 泵閥的改進措施

congtu 2 shangkeyikandaofapanxiazhuijiaobuweichengxianchuzuidayingliquyu。yuanyinzhuyaoshifapanyufazuochongjibiheshi,fapanzhuimianyufazuojiechu,chengshouchongjizaihe,zaizhuimian yufapandibuguoduchujiegouchicunjijubianhuachanshengyinglijizhong。yinglijizhongshijubuquyudeyinglizhichaoguolecailiaoanyudingshoumingsuonengchengshoudeyinglishuiping,youcimengshengliewen。pilaoyuanxizaiyinglijizhongjiaodadejianjiaogenbumengsheng,bingxiangxinbukuozhan,suoyibengfazhuyaocongzhuijiaoyufapandibugaijin。zaibengfaqitajiegoujixingnengbubiandeqingxingxia,weilejianshaoyinglijizhong,dimianshejiweiyuanhuxing,bingyuzhuimiancaiyongyuanhuaguodu(cishiyuanhubanjingwei 88.54mm)。bengfagaijinqianhoudelingjianturutu 6 suoshi。

duigaijinhoudebengfazuo ansys/ls—dyna sanweidongtaimonifenxi,jianlimoxing,poushiturutu 7。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖7
圖 7 泵閥改進前后結構圖

dedaofapanzaibihejieduanchanshengzuidajubuyinglishideyinglifenbutu,rutu 8。

鉆井泵閥壽命分析圖8
圖 8 改進后泵閥三維模型剖視圖

由圖 8 可知,最大局部應力出現在錐角偏上方,為 0.834×109Pa,比原來泵閥承受的最大應力 0.955×109Pa 減小了 12.67%。將求出的應力代入泵閥疲勞壽命圖 6,得到泵閥的壽命為 210h~320h。結構改進后,泵閥的壽命大大提高。

ciwai,gaijinhoudefatizailiutizhongyundongshihuannengyouxiaodijianxiaoshuilimozu,jianhuanliutizhongmolixingwuzhiduidibujizhuimiandechongshimosun,fapanluozaifazuoshangshidemifengxiaoguoyeyousuogaishan。

6 結論

(1)liyong ansys/ls—dyna ruanjianduifapanchongjifazuozuosanweishitidongtaimoni,dedaochongjiguochengzhongbengfachanshengzuidajubuyinglishideyinglifenbutu,fenxifapanxiazhuijiaochuyinglijizhongdeshoulixingshiyuchengdu。

(2)zhenduizhanjingbengfadechongjipilaopohuai,tongguofenxibengfacailiaozaiduichengxunhuanyinglixiadetiaojianpilaojixian,dedaobengfazaimodongxunhuanzaihezuoyongxiadepilaoshoumingquxian。yijuciquxian,xiaoheyoubengfaguanbijieduanjianhuamoxinghebengfachongjiguochengyouxianyuandonglixuemoxingqiuchudezuidajizhongyingli,gusuanbengfadeshiyongshouming。

(3)tichuyizhongkejiangdiyinglijizhongdebengfajiegougaijinfangan,conggenbenshangjianhuanbengfadechongjipilaopohuai,duizhidaobengfasheji,jinyibuyanchangbengfadeshiyongshoumingyouyidingdecankaojiazhi。


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